1 Cfr. Davidson B., The Africans. An Entry to Cultural History, Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd, London 1969.

2 Cfr. Montagu A. (ed.), The Concept of the primitive, The Free Press, New York 1968.

3 In this respect, a significant debate, as cited by Davidson (op. cit.), is that between some British anthropologists and some of their French colleagues - in particular Marcel Griaule - accused by the first of ascribing an excessively systematic order to the cosmological ideas of African peoples, transforming them into real 'philosophies' which they claim to have no basis. Hence the answer of the French anthropologists accused: the English anthropologists were not able to recognize African ontology simply because they had not looked for one. Cfr. Griaule M., Dieu d'eau. Entretiens avec Ogotemmeli, Ed. du Chêne, Paris 1948.

4 Cfr. Ejizu C.I., Emergent key issues in the study of African traditional religions, paper s.d., in

5 Cfr. p'Bitek O., African Religions in Western Scholarship, East African Literature Bureau, Kampala 1970.

6 Cfr. Ejizu, op. cit.

7 Cfr. Guizzardi G., L'organizzazione dell'eterno, Feltrinelli, Milano 1979.

8 Cfr. Magesa L., African Religion. The Moral Traditions of Abundant Life, Orbis Books, Maryknoll, New York 1997.

9 Cfr. Diop C.H., The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality, Lawrence Hill & Company, New York 1974.

10 Cfr. Bernal M., Black Athena: The Afrosiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey 1987.

11 Cfr. Mbiti J.S., African Philosophy and Religions, Heinemann, London 1969.

12 Cfr. Idowu E.B., African Traditional Religion. A Definition, SCM Press Ltd, London 1973.

13 Cfr. Magesa L., op. cit.

14 Cfr. Eliade M., Couliano I.P., The Eliade Guide to World Religions, Harper, San Francisco 1991.

15 Cfr. Mbiti J.S., op. cit.

16 Cfr. Mezzana D., "La sfida etica delle religioni africane tradizionali", in Società Africane, n. 2, 2002.These considerations on the levels of expression of African traditional religiousness were first expressed by Giancarlo Quaranta.

17 Barth K., Der Romerbrief, Berna 1919.

18 Cfr. Quaranta G., L'associazione invisibile, Sansoni, Firenze 1982.

19 Cfr. Blakely T.D., van Beek W.E.A., Thomson D.L. (eds), Religion in Africa, Heinemann-James Currey, Portsmouth-New Hampshire, London 1994.

20 According to van Beek and Blakely, the best definition of 'tradition' in Africa is actually its propensity to continuous transformation ('Introduction', in Blakely T.D., van Beek W.E.A., Thomson D.L., op. cit.); cfr. anche Amselle J.-L., Logiques métisses. Anthropologie de l'identité en Afrique et ailleurs, Payot, Paris 1990.

21 Cfr. Davidson, op.cit.

22 For more information on these people and the origin of the term 'Bambara', also see Amselle's authoritative text, already cited.

23 Cfr. Blakely T.D., van Beek W.E.A., Thomson D.L, op. cit.

24 Cfr. Davidson, op. cit.

25 Cf. Macgaffey W., 'Kimbanguism & Syncretism in Zaire', in Blakely T.D., van Beek W.E.A., Thomson D.L, op. cit. An interview to Diangienda Kuntima, son of Simon Kimbangu, was published in no. 2, 1981 of 'Laboratorio di scienze dell'uomo', a journal published by Cerfe. Cf. also Lanternari V., The Religions of the Oppressed, Alfred A. Knopf, New York 1963.

26 Cfr. Davidson B., op.cit.

27 Cfr. Blakely T.D., van Beek W.E.A., Thomson D.L, op. cit.

28 Cfr. Macgaffey W., "Kimbanguism & Syncretism in Zaire", op. cit.

29 Cfr. Davidson, op. cit.

30 Here by modernity we intend the conjugation of what is 'new' with what is 'traditional'. Therefore, it follows that various kinds of modernity can exist, rather than a single modernity 'exported' from the West as is often surmised. Cf. the article by Tana Worku Anglana in this issue of this journal.

31 Cfr. Fabian J., "Jamaa: A Charismatic Movement Revisited", in Blakely T.D., van Beek W.E.A., Thomson D.L, op. cit.

32 Cfr.the site

33 Cfr., for example, the web sites suggested by the special section in this journal.

34 'Bossonisme' aimed to create a kind of 'modern animism', with its own theology, dogmas, rites and liturgy. The term derives from 'Bossons', or the intermediary geniuses of the one and only god. Cfr.

35 Cfr.the web site

36 For information on the summit, Cf. the web site