bibliography updated 17 September 1998



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Abrahamsson H., The Origin of Death, Studies in African Mythology, Studia Ethnographica Upsaliensia III, Uppsala, 1951.

Acheampong S.O., "Reconstructing the structure of Akan traditional religion," Mission 2 (1995), 79-93.

Ackah C. A., Akan Ethics. A Study of the Moral Ideasand the Moral Behaviour of the Akan Tribes of Ghana,Accra, 1988.

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Achebe Chinwe, The World of the Ogbanje, Enugu, 1986.

Adagala K., "Mother Nature, Patriarchal Cosmology & Gender" in Gilbert E.M., ed. God, Humanity & Mother Nature. Nairobi: Masaki Publishers.1992, 47-65.

Adebajo S., "Kori - The Yoruba deity of children," Orita 21 (1989), 65-77.

Adegbite A., "The drum and its role in Yoruba religion," Journal of Religion in Africa 18 (1988), 15-26.

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Aderibigbe G., "Yoruba cosmology as a theory of creation: limits and assets," Asia Journal of Theology 13 (1999), 328-338.                                                                                                     

Adelowo E.D., "A comparative study of creation stories in Yoruba religion, Islam and Judaeo-Christianity," African Theological Journal 15 (1986), 29-53.

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Aderibigbe G., "African religion and Christianity in dialogue: an appraisal from the African perspective," Africana Marburgensia 32 (1999), 39-56.

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----, "The Cultic use of Water among the Yoruba," Orita 18 (1986), 28-39.

----, "Sacrifice in African Traditional Religion," Orita 20 (1988), 91-106.

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Adler A., & Zempléni A., Le bâton de l’aveugle. Divination, maladie et pouvoir chez les Moundang du Tchad, Paris, 1972.

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Aguessy H., "La divinité Legba et la dynamique du panthéon vodoun au Dan-Home", Cahiers des religions africaines 7 (1970), 89-96.

----, "Religions africaines comme effet et source de valeurs de la civilisation de l'oralité," Colloque de Cotonou, 1972, 25-49.

----, "Les dimensions spirituelles: religions traditionelles Africaines," Présence Africaine 117/118 (1981), 138-148.

Aguilar M., "The eagle as messenger, pilgrim and voice: divinatory processes among the Waso Boorana of Kenya," Journal of Religion in Africa 26 (1996), 56-72.

Ajayi B., "The derivation of Omo Odù in the Ifa literary corpus," Orita 24 (1992), 1-11.

Akoi P., Religion in African Social Heritage, Rome, 1970.

Akpunonu P.D., "The Religion of the Ibos, Yesterday and Today", Lux 2, 1 (1965), 85-94.

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Amankulor, J.N., "Ekpe Festivals as Religious ritual and Dance Drama", Ikenga 1, 2 (1972), 37-47.

Anyanwu H.O., "Why the Igbos abandoned their gods," Africa Theological Journal 14 (1985), 91-99.

Armstrong R.G., "African religion and cultural renewal," Orita 9 (1975), 109-132.

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Anderson E., "La notion de Dieu chez quelques tribus Congo-Camerounaises," Journal of Religion in Africa 2 (1969), 96-112.

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Ardener E., Coastal Bantu of the Cameroons, London, 1956.

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----, "The concept of Death and Hereafter", West African Religion 18 (1979) 57-69.

----, Yoruba Beliefs and Sacrificial Rites, London, 1979.

----, "Continuity and Discontinuity in African Religion: The Yoruba experience," Orita 13 (1981), 3-20.

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Bachelard G., L’Eau et les Rêves, Paris, 1943.

Bahoken V.C., Clairiéres métaphysiques africaines, Paris, 1967.

Balina A., et al., Sukuma Expression of Traditional Religion in Life, Kipalapala, 1970.

Barnes-Dean V.L., "Lugbara Illness Belief and Social Change," Africa 56 (1986), 334-351.

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Barnard A., "Structure and Fluidity in Khoisan Religious Ideas," in Journal of Religion in Africa 18 (1988), 216-236.

Bartels L., Oromo religion, Mythes and Rites of the Western Oromo of Ethiopia, Berlin, 1983.

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Bascom W., "Yoruba concepts of Soul," in Wallace A.F.C. (ed.) Men and Cultures, Philadelphia, 1960.

----, Ifa Divination, Communication between Gods and Men in West Africa, London, 1969.

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Bastien C., Folies, mythes et magies d'Afrique noire. Propos des guérisseurs du Mali,  Paris, 1988.

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Baumann H., "Das Tier als Alter Ego in Afrika. Zur Frage des afrikanischen Individualtotemismus," Paideuma 5 (1954), 167-188.

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Baumann H. & Westermann D., Les Peuples et les Civilisations del’Afrique, Paris, 1962.

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Beidelman T.O., "The blood covenant and the concept of blood in Ukaguru," Africa 33 (1963), 321-342.

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----, "Notes on boy’s initiation among the Ngulu of East Africa," Man 65 (1965) 143-147.

Beier U., The origin of life & death: African Creation Myths, London, 1966.

----, ed., Yoruba Myths, Cambridge, 1980.

----, Yoruba beaded crowns: Sacred Regalia of the Olokuku of Okuku, London, 1982.

Beltrame G., Il Fiume Bianco e i Dinka, 1881.

Belves F.F.C., "Kikuyu Religion", African Affairs, 1953, 202-246.

Benwenyi Kweshi O., "Le Dieu de nos Ancêtres", Cahiers des Religions Africaines, 1970, 137-151.

Berger R., "Is Traditional Religion still relevant?" Orita 3 (1969), 15-26.

Berglund A.I., Zulu thought patterns and symbolism, Cape Town, 1976.

Bergougnoux F.M., & Goetz J., La Religion des Préhistoriques et des Primitifs, Paris, 1958.

Berilengar A., "L’initiation traditionnelle, un processus d’intégration sociale. L’expérience des Murum au Tchad," Telema 17 (1991) 65-70.

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Bilolo M., "Die Begriffe ‘Heilger Geist’ und ‘Dreifaltigkeit Gottes’ angesichts der afrikanischen religiösen Überlieferung," Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft und Religionswissenschaft 68 (1984), 1-23.

Bimwenyi O., "Le muntu, à la lumière des ses croyances en l’au-delà," Cahiers des Religions Africaines, 1968, 65-74.

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Bleyler K.-E., Religion und Gesellschaft in Schwarzafrika. Sozial-religiöse Bewegungen und koloniale Situation. Stuttgart, 1981.

Blohm W. Die Nyamwezi. 3 vols., Hamburg, 1931-33.

Boccassino R., "La Mitologia degli Acioli sull’Essere Supremo", Anthropos, (1938) 59-106.

Bochet G., "Le masques sénoufo, de la forme à la signification," Bull. Ifan 27 (1965), 637-677.

Boeck F. de, "Healing from the Margin: Symbolic and Diachronic Study of Inter-cultural Therapeutic and Divinatory Roles among aLuund and Chokwe," in Ethnicity in Africa, edited by W. van Binsbergen & K. Schilder, London, 1993.

Boelaert E., "De Elima der Nkudo", Congo 1 (1936) 42-52.

Boer H.R., "Time as an aspect of traditional African eschatology," Reformed Review 39 (1986), 199-205.

Bohannan L. & Bohannan P., The Tiv of Central Nigeria (Ethnographic Survey of Africa), London, 1953.

Bohannan P., "Concepts of Time among the Tiv of Nigeria," Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 9 (1953) 251-262.

Bombwe G., "Some Traditional Prayers of the Luguru", Cahiers des Religions Africaines, 1970, 253-258.

Bongne J., "Adultery rite of purification among the Dagaaba," The Northern Review 8 (1989), 1-12.

Bonin W. F. Die Götter Schwarzafrikas. Mit einer Liste afrikanischer Gottesnamen von John S. Mbiti und einer Erzählung von Niitse Akufo Awuku. Graz, 1979.

Booth N.S. (Jr.), "Time and change in African traditional thought," Journal of Religion in Africa 7 (1975), 81-91.

----, "Civil Religion in Traditional Africa", in Africa Today, 23/24 (1976) 56-66.

----, (ed.) African Religions. A symposium, N.Y., 1977.

----, "An Approach to African Religions," in Booth N. S. (Ed.): African Religions. A Symposium. New York, 1977, 1-11.

----, "God and the Gods in West Africa," in Booth N.S. (ed.), African Religions. A Symposium, New York, 1977, 159-181.

----, "Tradition and community in African religion," Journal of Religion in Africa 9 (1978), 81-94.

Bösch P., Les Banyamwezi - Peuple de l’Afrique Orientale, Münster, 1930.

Boubou H., Enquête sur les Fondaments et la Genèse de l’Unité Africaine, Paris, 1966.

Boulaga F.E., La Crise du Muntu, Authenticité Africaine et Philosophie, Paris, 1977.

Bourdillon M.F.C., "Religion and ethics in Korekore society," Journal of Religion in Africa 10 (1979), 81-94.

Bourgeois A., "Mukoko Ngoombu: Divination Paraphernalia of the Yaka," African Arts 15 (1983) 56-59, 80.

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Breivik N.O., "Afrikanske religioner i lys av afrikansk tolkning," Norsk Tidsskrift for Misjon 42 (1988), 137-154.

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----, Lire la religion africaine, Louvain-La-Neuve, 1988.

Bücher H., Spirits and Power, an Analysis of Shona cosmology, Cape Town, 1980.

Bujo B., "Kultur und Christentum in Afrika," Neue Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft 32 (1976), 212-216.

----, "Nos ancêtres, ces saints inconnus," Bulletin de Théologie Africaine 1 (1979), 165-178.

Bürkle H., "Das überzeitliche Korporative in afrikanischen Stammesreligionen," Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft und Religionswissenschaft 60 (1976), 3-15.

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Bukasa T.K.M., "L’impact de la religion africaine sur l’Afrique d’aujourd’hui, latence et patience," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 38 (1978), 114-123.

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Burton J.W., "Luba Religion and Magic in Custom and Belief", Annales du Musée de Tervuren 35, 1961.

----, God’s Ants. A study of Atuot Religion. Studia Instituti Antropos 37. St. Augustin, 1981.

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Butturini G., "Interlocuteurs et contenus du dialogue avec les Religions Traditionnelles Africaines," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 26 (1974), 122-136.

----, "De la participation des Religions Traditionnelles Africaines au dialogue interreligieux: possibilités et limites," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 30 (1975), 298-310.

----, "Religioni tradizionali nell’Africa odierna," Credere Oggi 1 (1981), 87-96.

Byaruhanga-Akiiki A.B.T., "The philosophy and theology of time in Africa: The Bantu case," AFER 22 (1980), 357-369.

----, Religion in Bunyoro, Nairobi, 1982.

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-----, La Notion de Dieu chez les Baluba du Kasai, Bruxelles, 1956.

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----, ed., Le thème de l’arbre dans les contes africaines, Paris, 1969.

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Capron J., "Univers religieux et cohesion interne dans les communautés villageoises Bwa traditionnelles," in Fortes M., and Dieterlen G., (eds.): African Systems of Thought, Oxford, 1965, 291-313.

Casalis E., Les Bassoutos, Paris, 1933.

Chegwe A.O., "Re-Incarnation: A Socio-Religious Phenomenon among the Ibo- Speaking Riverines of the Lower Niger", Cahier des Religions Africaines, 1973, 113-135.

Chidester D., Religions of South Africa, London, 1992.

Chima A., "Dialogue with Traditional Religions in Malawi," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 28-29 (1975), 122-131.

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Chitando E., IAfrican Christian scholars and the study of African traditional religions: a re-evaluation," Religion 30 (2000), 391-397.

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Collden L., The Traditional Religion of the Sakata, Uppsala, 1971.

Colson E., Marriage and the Family among the plateau Tonga of Northern Rhodesia, Manchester, 1958.

----, "Ancestral Spritis and Social Structure Among the Plateau Tonga," in William A. L., & Evon Z. V., (eds.) Reader in Comparative Religion, New York, 1965, 437-441.

Correia P.I.A., "L’animisme Ibo et les divinites de la Nigeria," Anthropos 16-17 (1921-1922), 360-366.

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Cory H., African Figurines, London, 1956.

Coulon C., "Prophets of God or of history? Muslim messianic movements and anti-colonialism in Senegal," in Binsbergen W. van and Schoffeleers M. (eds.), Theoretical explorations in African Religion, London, 1985, 346-366.

Courlander H., Tales of Yoruba Gods and Heroes, New York, 1973.

----, ed., A Treasury of African Folklore: the oral literature, traditions, myths, legends, epics, tales, recollections, wisdom, sayings and humor of Africa, New York, 1975.

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Dalfovo A.T., Lugbara Proverbs, Rome, 1984.

Dalmais P., "L’Église et les Religions Traditionnelles au Tchad," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 44 (1980), 237-248.

Daly J., "Notes on penance and reconciliation in an African Culture," in Evangelizzazione e Culture III (Atti del congresso internazionale scientifico di missiologia, Roma, 5-12 Ottobre 1975), Rome: Pontifical Urbanian University, 1976, 69-75.

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----, La mort et les coutumes funéraires à Madagascar, Paris, 1964.

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----, Die sakralen Häuptlinge der Gurunsi im Obervolta-Gebiet, Hamburg, 1961.

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Echekwube A.O., "The question of reincarnation in African religion: A re-appraisal," Orita 19 (1987) 10-26.

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Egbo E.P., "Conflict between Traditional Religion and Christianity in Igbo, South-Eastern Nigeria", West African Religion 10 (1971) 1-17.

----, "The beginning of the end of Traditional Religion in Igboland", Civilisations 21 (1971), 1-12.

Ejizu C., "Continuity and Discontinuity in African Traditional Religion. The case of the Igbo of Nigeria," Cahiers des Religions Africaines, 1984, 197-214.

----, Ofo, Igbo Ritual Symbol, Enugu, 1986.

----, "Endurance of conviction: the persistence of the traditional world-view in Igbo Christian converts," neue Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft 43 (1987), 124-135.

----, "Nigeria's three religions: patterns and prospects of their interaction," African Theological Journal 17 (1988), 179-195.

----, "Human rights in African indigenous religion," Bulletin of Ecumenical Theology 4 (1991), 31-45.

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Rabemahafaly V., "L’Incultration de l’Evangile dans le contexte africaine d’après les allocutions pastorales du Pape Jean-Paul II," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 49-50 (1982), 153-165.

Radcliffe-Brown A.R. & Forde K. (eds.), African Systems of Kingship and Marriage, London, 1950.

Radin P., La Religion Primitive, Paris, 1941.

Rampazzo L., La Famiglia in Burundi, Bologna, 1979.

Randall F., "African proverbs related to Christianity," in Anderson G.H. & T.F. Stransky, Mission Trends no. 3, Grand Rapids, 1976, 181-189.

Ranger T.O., & Kimambo I., eds., The Historical Study of African Religion, London, 1972.

Raponda-Walker A., & Sillans R., Rites et Croyances des Peuples du Gabon, Paris, 1962.

Rattray R.S., Religion and Art in Ashanti, London, 1927 (reprint. 1959).

----, The Ashanti, Oxford, 1923.

Ray B.C., African Religions: Symbol, Rituals and Community, New Jersey, 1976.

Razafintsalama A., "Les ancêtres au coeur de la vie et de la sagesse: Jalons pour une théologie en terre Malgache," Telema 53 (1988), 11-29.

Reynolds B., Magic, Divination and Witchcraft among the Barotse of Northern Rhodesia, London, 1963.

Richard M., Histoire, Tradition et Promotion de la Femme chez Batanga, Bandundu, 1970.

Riehl V., & Christiane A., "‘Die Erde kommt, die Erde geht’ - Zum religiösen Naturverständnis der Tallensi in Nord-Ghana," in Sociologus 44 (1994), 136-148.

Rigby P., "Dual symbolic classification among the Godo of central Tanzania," Africa 36 (1966), 1-17. 

Ritchie, Ian. "Nature and Humanity in African Traditional Religions." ARC: The Journal of the Faculty of Religious Studies 18 (1990), 27-46.

Riviere C., "Dieu, l’Insurpassable chez les Ewe du Togo," in Anthropos, 1979, 25-39.

Rodriguez de Areira M.L., Les symboles divinatoires. Analyse socio-culturelle d’une technique de divination des Cokwe de l’Angola (ngombo ya cisuka), Coimbra, 1985.

Roheim G., L'animisme, la magie et le roi divin, Paris, 1988.

Roscoe J., The Baganda, Their Customs and Beliefs, London, 1912.

---, The Soul of Central Africa, London, 1922.

Rosny E., Les yeux de ma chèvre. Sur les pas des maîtres de la nuit en pays douala (Cameroun), Paris, 1981.

Rossano P., "Evangile et Culture Africaine," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 33 (1976), 311-318.

Rouch J., La Religion et la Magie Songhai, Paris, 1960.

Routledge W.S., and K., With a Prehistoric People, the Akikuyu, London, 1910.

Roy H. van, Dieu, Idoles, Sorcellerie (Yaka), Bandudu (Zaire), 1968.

Ruel M.J., "Religion and society among the Kuria of East-Africa," in Africa, 1965, 295-306.

Russell J.K., Men Without god? London, 1966.

Ruud J., Taboo: a study of Malagasy Customs and Beliefs, London, 1960.

Rweyemamu R., "Evangelization and African religions," Omnis Terra 142 (1983), 465-485.

Ryan P.J., " ‘Arise O God!’ The problem of ‘gods’ in West Africa," Journal of Religion in Africa 11 (1980), 161-171.

Sa Angang D.A., "Les valeurs contenues dans les Religions Traditionnelles Africaines," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 94 (1997), 11-29.

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Sanon A.T., "Religions Traditionnelles et Christianism en Haute-Volta," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 28-29 (1975), 87-100.

----, "Religion et spiritualité Africaine. La quête spirituelle de l’humanité Africaine," Au Coeur de l’Afrique 23 (1983), 62-81.

Sarpong P., ""The influence of Traditional Religions on African Christianity," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 25 (1974), 27-42.

----, Ghana in retrospect: Some aspects of Ghanaian culture, Accra-Tema, 1974.

----, "Christianity and traditional African religion," in Best. Kenneth Y., ed., African Challenge, Nairobi, 1975, 25-31.

----, "Media of revelation in African Traditional Religion," The Ghana Bulletin of Theology 4 (1975), 40-47.

----, "African traditional religions and their values," Omnis Terra 79 (1976), 36-40.

----, "Christianity and traditional African cultures," Worldmission 30 (1979), 16-23.

----, "Growth or Decay: Can Christianity dialogue with African Traditional religion?" Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 69 (1988) 189-206.

----, Girls’ Nubility Rites, Tema, 1991.

----., The Sacred Stools of the Akan, Tema, 1991 (reprint of 1971).

----, "The individual, community, health and medicine in African Traditional Religion: the Asante model," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 84 (1993), 271-280.

Sastre R., "Le voudoû dans la vie culturelle, sociale et politique du Sud-Dahomey," Cahiers des Religions Africaines, 1970, 177-188.

Sawyerr H., God: Ancestor or Creator? Aspects of Traditional beliefs in Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone, London, 1970.

Scarin A., "Les structures de la spiritualité des traditions religieuses Africaines," Revue Africaine de Theologie 7 (1983), 205-214.

Schapera J., The Khoisan, Peoples of South Africa, London, 1960.

Schebesta P., Le Sens religieux des primitifs, Paris, 1963.

Schapera I., The Khoisan Peoples of South Africa, London, 1930.

----, Married Life in an African Tribe, New York, 1941.

Schilde W. Orakel und Gottesurteile in Afrika, Leipzig, 1940.

Schlosser K., Eingeborenenkirchen in Süd- und Südwestafrika, Kiel, 1958.

Schmidt A., "Das Kornfest "Nsiä’ [Grasland v. Kamerun]," in Archiv für Anthropologie, Völkerforschung und kolonial Kulturwandel, N.F. 28 (1943), 89-125.

Schmidt W., "Zur erforschung der Alte Bushmann-Religion," in Africa, 1929, 291-301.

----, Die Religionen der Urvölker Afrikas, Münster, 1933.

----, "Le Fond Religieux Primitif au Togo-sud," in Revue du Clergé Africain, Mayidi (Zaïre), 1956, 44-48.

Schneider W., Die Religion der Afrikanischen Naturvölker, Münster, 1891.

Schoffeleers J.M., "The Religious significance of Bush Fires in Malawi," Cahiers des Religions Africaines, 1971, 271-282.

Schöneberger P., "Names for ‘God’ known and used by the Nyamwezi," Anthropos, 1961, 947ff.

Schott R., "Schenken und Geschenke in Erzählungen der Bulsa (Nordghana)," in Geider T., & Raimund K., (eds.), Sprachen und Sprachzeugnisse in Afrika - Eine Sammlung philologischer Beiträge Wilhelm J. G. Möhlig zum 60. Geburtstag zugeeignet. Köln, 1994, 409-428.

----, "Serment et voeux chez des ethnies voltaïques (Lyela, Bulsa, Tallensi) en Afrique Occidentale," in Droit et Cultures 14 (1987), 29-56.

----, Der gegessene Gott - Mensch und Kosmos in afrikanischen Weltbildern," in Horst Seebaß: Die Entdeckung des Kosmos durch den Menschen. Studium generale Wintersemester 1980/81. Münster, 1982, 89-135.

----, Kisuk-Tiere der Bulsa - Zur Frage des "Totemismus" in Nord-Ghana," in Kölner Ethnologische Mitteilungen 5 (1973), 439-459.

Schutte A.G., "Mwali in Venda: some observations on the significance of the high god in Venda history," Journal of Religion in Africa 9 (1978), 109-122.

Schweeger-Hefel Annemarie, "Ahnen, die sich verbergen," in Münchner Beiträge zur Völkerkunde 1 (1988), 219-243.

Seligman C., Seligman B.Z., Pagan Tribes of the Nilotic Sudan, London, 1932.

Sempebwa J., "Die Suche nach Frieden in afrikanischen Religionen," Zeitschrift für Mission 10 (1984), 21-25.

Setiloane G.M., The image of God among the Sotho-Tswana, Rotterdam, 1976.

Sharevskaya, Religions anciennes et nouvelles de l’Afrique tropicale et méridionale, Moscow, 1965.

----, "Agency, Meaning and Structure in African Religion," in Journal of Religion in Africa 18 (1988), 255-266.

----, "Splitting Truths from Darkness - Epistemological Aspects of Temne Divination," in Peek, Philip M. (ed.), African Divination Systems - Ways of Knowing, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 1991, 137-152.

Shelton A.J., "On the recent Interpretation of Deus Otiosus, the Withdrawal of High God in West African Religion," Man 64 (1964), 53f.

----, "The Presence of the Withdrawn High God in North Ibo Religious Belief and Worship." Man 65 (1965), 15f.

Shorter A., Prayer in the Religious Traditions of Africa, Nairobi, 1975.

----, "Problems and possibilities for the Church’s dialogue with African Traditional Religion," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 28-29 (1975), 111-121.

----, "Creative imagination and the language of religious traditions in Africa," Kerygma 35 (1980), 175-203.

----, "The study of African Traditional Religion," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 70 (1989), 77-82.

Sidibé M. J.-M., "Une approche de la conception africaine de l’homme," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 49-50 (1982), 121-140.

Singleton M., "Ancestors, adolescents and the Absolute: An exercise in contextualisation," Pro Mundi Vita Bulletin 68 (1977), 1-35.

Smith E.W., ed. African ideas of God, London, 1973.

Somé B.B., "La Religion Traditionelle Mossi comme source de valeurs de civilisation politique," in Cahiers des Religions Africaines, 1970, 205-227.

Sogolo G.S., "Intellectualism and religious discourse: A Neo-Tylorian perspective to the understanding of traditional religion," Orita 14 (1982), 79-89.

Some B.B., "La religion traditionnelle mossi comme source de valeurs de civilisation politique," Cahiers des Religions Africaines, 1970, 205-227.

Sow A.I., et al., Introduction à la Culture Africaine, Paris, 1977.

Spellig F., "Über Geheimbünde bei den Wanyamwezi," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 59 (1927), 62-66.

Spieth J., Die Religion der Eweer in Süd-Togo. Göttingen und Leipzig, 1911.

Stam N., "The Religious Conceptions of the Kavirondo," in Anthropos, 1919-1920, 275-293, 968-980.

Stappers L., "Prayer of a Molembwe Woman," in Kongo-Overzee, Bruxelles, 1952, 6-7.

----, "Prières Luba-Kasaï datant de 1912," in Cahiers des Religions Africaines, 1969, 111-115.

----, Zuid-Kisongye Bloemlezing, Bruxelles, 1953.

Stow G.W., Native Races of Africa, London, 1905.

Strandsbjerg C., "Kérékou, God and the ancestors: religion and the conception of political power in Benin, African Affairs 99 (2000), 395-414.

Struyf I., "De Godsdienst bij de Bokongo," in Onze Kongo, I, Bruxelles, 1909, 225-249 and 3455-372.

---, "L’Etre Suprême chez les Tutshokwe," in Congo, I, Bruxelles, 1939, 361-386.

Sulzmann E.,"Die Bewegung der Antonier im alten Reiche Kongo," in Mühlmann W.E.(ed.), Chiliasmus und Nativismus, Berlin, 1961, 81-86.

Sundermeier T., Nur gemeinsam können wir leben. Das Menschenbild schwarzafrikanischer Religionen, Gütersloh, 1988.

----, The individual and community in African Traditional Religion, Hamburg, 1998.

Sundkler B., Bantu Prophets in South Africa, London, 1961.

Surgy A. de, "Le sacrifice à la lumière des conceptions mwaba-gurma et évhé (nord et sud du Togo)," in Anthropos 84 (1989), 63-80.

Tablino P., "Time and religion: some considerations on the traditional beliefs of the Gabra people of Kenya," Bulletin Secretarius pro non-Christianis 23 (1988), 215-221.

Talbot P.A., Some Nigerian Fertility Cults, Oxford, 1927.

----, Tribes of the Niger Delta, London, 1922.

Tamuno T.N., "Traditional methods of crime detection and control in Nigeria," Orita 26 (1994), 25-41.

Tanner R., Transition in African Beliefs. Traditional Religion and Christian Change: A Study in Sukumaland, Tanzania, East Africa. Maryknoll, 1967.

Tanghe B., "Le Culte de Dieu chez les Ngbandi," in Congo II, 1925, 435-438.

Tasie G.O.M., "Africans and the religious dimensions: an appraisal," Africana Marburgensia 9 (1976), 34-70.

Tastevin C., "Idées Religieuses dan l’Enclave de Cabinda," in Études Théologiques, 1935, 101-111, 191-197, 257-273.

----, "La Religion des Nones," in Études Théologiques, 1934, 81-100, 177-181.

----, "la Religion des Wakwanyama (Angola)," in Revue d’Histoire des Missions, 1938, 264-284.

----, "La Religion païenne en Basse-Casamance," in Études Théologiques, 1933, 264-281.

Tate H.R., "Notes on the Kikuyu and Kamba Tribes," in Journal of the African Institute, London, 1904, 263.

Tauxier L., La Religion Bambara, Paris, 1927.

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Taylor J.V., The Primal Vision, London, 1963.

Tchouanga P., & Ngangoum B.F., "La vérité du Culte des Ancêtres en Afrique chez Bamiléké," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 33 (1976), 219-253.

Tegnaeus H., La Fraternité de sang, Paris, 1954.

----, Le Héros civilisateur, Stockholm, 1950.

Tempels P., La Philosophie Bantoue, Paris, 1965.

Ten Raa E., "The Moon as a Symbol of Life and Fertility in Sandawe-Thought," in Africa, 1969, 24-53.

Tengan E., "The Land as Being and Cosmos - The Institution of the Earth Cult among the Sisala of Northwestern Ghana. European University Studies," Series XIX Anthropo-logie/Ethnology, Section B Ethnology 25 (1991).

Tengan E.B., "The Sisala Universe: its Composition and Structure," in Journal of Religion in Africa 20 (1990), 2-19.

Theuws T. "Croyance et culte chez les Baluba," in Présence Africaine 17-18 (1958), 23-32.

Thiel J.F., Ahnen, Geister, Hochste Wesen (Kasaï), Vienne, 1977.

---, La Situation Religieuse des Mbiem, Bandudu (Zaire), 1972.

Thomas L.V., "Société et Santé mentale," Psychopathologie africaine 5 (1969), 355-394.

----, "Reflexions sans titre au sujet des Mythes Africaines," in Cahiers des Religions Africaines, 1972, 133-165.

----, "La Religion Négro-africaine dans son essence et ses manifestations," in Cahiers des Religions Africaines, 1977, 65-90.

Tiarko Fourche J.A. & Morlighem H., Les communications des indigènes du Kasaï avec les âmes des morts, Bruxelles, 1939.

Tindano T.T., "La place du sarificateur chez les Gourmanceba," Telema 42 (1985), 57-61.

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Tovagonze V., "God-concept: ‘Supreme Being’ in African tribal religions," Journal of Dharma 17 (1992), 122-140.

Trilles R.P., le Totémisme ches les Fan, Münster, 1912.

----, L’Ame des Pygmées de l’Afrique, Paris, 1945.

----, Les Pygmées de la forêt équatoriale, Paris, 1931.

Tsala A., "L’Ethique et la Thérapeutique dans les traditions africaines," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreli-gious Dialogue 33 (1976), 254-260.

Tshiamalenga N., "La philosophie de la faute dans la tradition Luba," Cahiers des Religions Africaines, 1974, 167-186.

----, "Mythe et religion en Afrique," Cahiers des Religions Africaines, 1984, 179-195.

Tubiana M.J., Survivances préislamiques en pays Zaghawa, Paris, 1964.

Turner W.H., "Themes in the symbolism of Ndembu hunting ritual," Anthropological Quarterly 35 (1962), 37-57.

----,  Living Tribal Religions, London, 1971.

----, "The way forward in the religious study of African primal religions," Journal of Religion in Africa 12 (1981), 1-15.

Uba C.N. "Divinities and Ancestors in Igbo Traditional Religion," in Africa, 1982, n.2, 90-105.

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----, "The Problem of God and Sacrifice in African Traditional Religion," in Journal of Religion in Africa 14 (1983), 187-203.

Umezinwa W.A., "Elements constitutifs de la religion traditionnelle dans les romans de Mongo Beti, Benjamin Matip et Ferdinand Oyono," in Cahiers des Religions Africaines, 1973, 5-42.

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Uroh C.O., "Witchcraft, causality and the African world," Bodija Journal 6 (1994), 45-64.

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Uzukwu E., "The god of our ancestor and African unity," African Ecclesial Review 23 (1981), 344-352.

----, "Igbo Spirituality as Revealed through Igbo Prayers," in Bulletin de Théolgie Africaine Kinshansa, 1983, no. 10, 205-222.

----, (ed.), Religion and African Culture: Inculturation - A Nigerian Perspective, Enugu, 1988.

Valente J.F., Paisagem Africana: uma tribo angolana no seu fabulário, Luanda, 1973.

Vanden Bosch G., "Le Nom et la Notion de l’Être Suprême chez les Bale," in Anthropos, 1928, 987-999.

Vansina J., "Initiation Rituals of the Bushong," Africa 25 (1955), 138-153.

----, Les Tribus Ba-Kuba. Tervuren, 1954.

----, "Probing the past of the Lower Kwilu Peoples," Paideuma 19-20 (1974), 332-364.

Vecsey C., "Facing death, masking death, in Luba Myth and Art," Journal of Religion in Africa 14 (1983), 24-25.

Vedder H., Die Bergdama, 2 vols. Berlin, 1923.

Verger P., Dieux d’Afrique, Paris, 1954.

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Vergiat A.M., les Rites secrets des primitifs de l’Oubangui, Paris, 1951.

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Vincent, J.-F. "Techniques divinatoires des Saba (Montagnards du Centre-Tchad)," in Journal de la Société des Africanistes 36 (1966), 45-63.

----, Princes montagnards du Nord-Cameroun, les Mofu-Diamaré et le pouvoir politique, Paris, 1991.

Visser J. J., Pökoot Religion, Oegstgeest, 1989.

Vorbichler A., Das Opfer auf den uns heute noch erreichbaren ältesten Stufen der Menschheitsgeschichte. Mödling bei Wien, 1956.

Wanger W., "The Zulu Notion of God," in Anthropos, 1926, 351-385.

Wanjohi G.J., "An African conception of God: the case of the Gikuyu," Journal of Religion in Africa 9 (1978), 136-146.

Waswandi N.K., "Culte sacrificiel à Dieu Nyamuhanga chez les Nande du Zaïre et signification du sacrifice," Revue Africaine de Theologie 14 (1990), 65-101.

Webster A., Le Tabou. Etude sociologique, Paris, 1950.

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Welbourn F.B., "Keyo initiation," Journal of Religion in Africa 1 (1968), 212-232.

Welter G., Les Croyances Primitives et leurs survivances, Paris, 1960.

Werner A., Myths and Legends of the Bantu, London, 1933.

Wese w’Esimela L., "La notion de Bont’okaka. Indice d’une morale mongo," Cahiers des Religions Africaines, 1974, 173-202.

Westerlund D., African Religion in African Scholarship. A Preliminary Study of the Religious and Political Background, Stockholm, 1985.

Westermann D., "So, der Gewittergott der Ewe," in Zeitschrf. f. Eingeborenen-Sprachen 70, 152-159.

----, Die Glidyi-Ewe in Togo. Berlin, 1935.

----, Die Kpelle - Ein Negerstamm in Liberia. Göttingen und Leipzig, 1921.

Whooley P., "Dialogue with African Cultures (South Africa)," Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 28-29 (1975), 164-173.

Williams E.L. and Brown C.F., The Howard University Bibliography of African and Afro-American Religious studies, Washington, 1977.

Williams J.J., Africa’s God, Massachusetts, 1938.

Willoughey W.C., The Soul of the Bantu, New York, 1928.

Wilmore G.S., Black Religion and Black Radicalism, New York, 1983.

Wilson M., Communal Rituals of the Nyakusa, London, 1959.

---, Ritual of Kinship among the Nyakusa, London, 1957.

Wing J. van, "L’Etre Suprême des Bakongo," in Recherces de Science Religeuse, Parish, 1920, 170-181.

Wing R.P. van, Études ba-Kongo, Bruxelles, (2nd ed.) 1959.

Witte H., Symbolik van de Aarde bij de Yorubas, Groningen, 1982.

Wright A.C.A., "The Supreme Being among the Acholi of Uganda," in Uganda Journal, 1940, 130-137.

Wyllie R.W., "Ghanaian spiritual and traditional healers’ explanations of illness: a preliminary survey," Journal of Religion in Africa 14 (1983), 46-57.

Yamsat P., "The concept of God and spiritual beings in various Nigerian traditional religions," TCNN Research Bulletin 16 (1986), 27-29.

Yilji D.G.J., "The Ngas concept of God and spiritual beings," TCNN Research Bulletin 16 (1986), 30-39.

Young T.C., Contemporary Ancestors, London, 1940.

Zahan D., "Aperçu sur la Pensée Théogonique des Dogon," in Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie, vol. VI, Paris, 1949.

---, Sociétés d’Initiation Bambara: le N’domo, le Korè, Paris-La Haye, 1960.

---, Religion, Spiritualité et Pensée Africaines, Paris, 1964.

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---, The Religion, Spirituality and Thought of traditional Africa, Chicago, 1979.

Zempleni-Rabain J., "Modes fondamentaux de relations chez l’enfant Wolof, du sevrage à l’intégration dans la classe d’âge," Psychopathologie africaine 2 (1966), 143-177.

Zimbabwe Catholic Bishops’ Conference, "Communion between the living and the dead," AFER (1987), 309-314.

Zimo, H., "Guinea Corn Harvest Rituals among the Konkomba of Northern Ghana," in Anthropos 84 (1989), 447-458.

Zuesse E.M., "Action as the way of transcendance: the religious significance of the Bwami cult of the Lega," Journal of Religion in Africa 9 (1978), 62-72.

----, Ritual Cosmos: The Sanctification of life in African Religions, Ohio, 1979.

----, "Divination and deity in African religions," in History of Religions 15 (1975), 158-182.

Zuure B., "Immâna, le Dieu des Barundi," Anthropos, 1926, 733-776.

---, Croyances et pratiques religieuses des Barundi, Bruxelles, 1929.

---, L’Ame du Murundi, Bruxelles , 1932.

Zvarevashe I., "Shona (Bantu) Traditional Religion," African Ecclesial Review 22 (1980), 294-303.

----, "The problem of ancestors and inculturation," AFER 29 (1987), 242-251.

Zwernemann J., "Les notions du dieu-ciel chez quelques tribus voltaïques," in Études voltaïques 2 (1961), 71-100.

----, "Ancestors, Earth and Fertility in the Belief of some Voltain Peoples," Jacobson W., van Beek W., (ed.), The Creative Communion. African Folk Models of Fertility and the Regeneration of Life. Uppsala studies in Cultural Anthropology, Uppsala, 1990.


This bibliography compiled by Chidi Denis Isizoh is only a sample of hundreds of volumes of books and articles that have been published on the subject. It is an invaluable tool for those who love to know the rich religious background of the Africans on the continent and in the diaspora.


You can reach Chidi Denis Isizoh at 
© Chidi Denis Isizoh.
1996  - 2008